Evidenced-based practice in social work

Evidenced-based practice in social work

The Iriss Evidence Search and Summary Service (ESSS) was set up to help social services providers use evidence to help support practice, service improvement and continuous learning the social services sector in Scotland. As a part of this, we’ve been looking into the research around evidence-based practice (EBP) in social work. In this post, we’ll be sharing some of the key issues highlighted in the literature.

Defining evidence-based practice

“EBP is a process, a verb, not a noun.” (Thyer and Myers 2011)

Like so many slippery subjects in social services, there is disagreement about how we define EBP (Gray et al. 2009). Some researchers argue that the phrase itself, which originates from medicine, is too rigid, and prefer the term evidence-informed practice (EIP) (McLaughlan and Teater 2017). EIP is considered by some to be a more inclusive, non-hierarchical notion (Webber 2015), implying that practice knowledge and interventions might be enriched by prior research but not limited to it (Epstein 2009).

There was some consensus, however, that EBP is a process that involves many different factors with the long-term goal of positive outcomes for service users. Generally, there is a lot of discussion around the barriers to EBP. These tend to be focused around the evidence itself, practitioners and organisations, and we’ve summarised some of these issues below.

What is evidence?

“Much research is ‘of the wrong kind’ – that is, it focuses on problems not on evaluating solutions.” (Webber 2015)

In the studies we read, there was agreement that the strict, narrow, scientific view of evidence traditionally associated with EBP was not wholly appropriate for social services (Gray et al. 2009). Rather than a strict hierarchy, there is a tendency to place equal value on organisational, practitioner, policy community, academic and user and carer research (Pawson et al. 2003). See our post on social services evidence for examples of resources relevant to the Scottish context.

A broad approach to gathering evidence is often necessary; as social work covers a diverse field of activity, the research base is correspondingly fragmented (Booth et al. 2003). The complex issues surrounding interventions in social work do not do not easily lend themselves to experimental designs (Berger 2010; Gray et al. 2009). Many social workers embarking on research might find limited academic evidence relevant to the diverse populations they support and their unique agency context (Bledsoe-Mansori et al. 2013). Other issues related to evidence include:

  • Lack of fit between the type of research undertaken and requirements of practitioners (Gray et al. 2015)
  • Slow process of academic publishing means evidence can quickly become irrelevant in practice context (Wike et al. 2014)
  • Evidence around effectiveness, such as what type of intervention works best with a certain group of clients, is most useful for practitioners, but the majority of evidence tends to be descriptive or explanatory (Berger 2010).

What role do practitioners play?

“[I]t is inevitable that professional judgement will always take priority over evidence in informing decision-making.” (Gray et al. 2009)

A survey on 152 social workers found that approximately a third found it difficult to practice evidence-based social work, and 17% did not feel it was feasible to use EBP when providing interventions for clients (Teater and Chonody 2017). The literature also shows that social workers tend to draw on their practice wisdom and experiential knowledge rather than privileging empirical research (Gray et al. 2015).

The responsibilities of EBP frequently fall on the shoulders of practitioners, who might be given little support to implement these changes in the way they work (Yates et al. 2015). Social workers were found to differ in terms of whether or not they see themselves as needing to be involved in locating, appraising and applying research in order for EBP to be best implemented; a survey of 364 social workers found that 41% felt practitioners had a responsibility to appraise and apply research themselves, while 42% believed EBP involved the use of guidelines and protocols developed by others (Gray et al. 2015).

The barriers to EBP experienced by practitioners will undoubtedly be familiar:

One of the main themes emerging from the literature is that social workers tend to consult with peers, supervisors or mentors to alert them to relevant research (Booth et al. 2003) and for support in making practice decisions (Teater and Chonody 2017). Peer influence is also thought to play a part in their exposure to and willingness to adopt new practices (Wike et al. 2014). There is potential for more research around how this way of working might be leveraged to integrate EBP.

How can organisations support EBP?

“Evidence-based practice is the endpoint of a massive research, policy and practice infrastructure pushing the practitioner in a particular direction.” (Gray et al. 2009)

Research in this area consistently finds that organisational culture and availability of resources have a significant influence on the uptake of EBP (Bledsoe-Mansori et al. 2013Cheung et al. 2015; Gray et al. 2009; Gray et al. 2015). These resources include dedicated staff time, funding support and an infrastructure providing access to evidence (Gray et al. 2015).

Some of the recommendations for supporting EBP in an organisation include:

  • Giving practitioners access to research and time to engage in EBP (Teater and Chonody 2017)
  • Working towards organisational cultures marked by norms of achievement and motivation, development of staff abilities, positive interpersonal relationships, and mutual support (Wike et al. 2014)
  • Incorporating the direct experience social workers and clients have regarding the impact and effectiveness of interventions into evidence-generation (Gray et al. 2009)
  • Developing agency–university partnerships to motivate social work practitioners to increase adoption of EBP (Bledsoe-Mansori et al. 2013)
  • Framing research utilisation within an organisation as mission-relevant and as connected to growth, learning and innovation (Yates et al. 2015)
  • Providing ongoing training and/or mentorship and support from peers or experts in the field (Teater and Chonody 2017)

Want to know more?

Get in touch with the ESSS team for support finding and using evidence in your practice or within your organisation.


Berger, R (2010) EBP: practitioners in search of evidence, Journal of Social Work, 10(2), pp.175–191 (paywalled)

Bledsoe-Mansori, SE et al. (2013) Implementing evidence-based practice: practitioner assessment of an agency-based training program, Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 10(2), pp.73–90 (paywalled)

Booth, SH et al. (2003) The need for information and research skills training to support evidence-based social care: a literature review and survey, Learning in Health and Social Care, 2(4), pp.191–201 (paywalled)

Cheung, M et al. (2015) Research–practice integration in real practice settings: issues and suggestions, Research on Social Work Practice, 25(4), pp.523–530 (paywalled)

Epstein, I (2009) Promoting harmony where there is commonly conflict: evidence-informed practice as an integrative strategy, Social Work in Health Care, 48(3), pp.216–231 (paywalled)

Gray, M et al. (2009) Evidence-based social work: a critical stance. Oxon: Routledge

Gray, M et al. (2015) What supports and impedes evidence-based practice implementation? A survey of Australian social workers, British Journal of Social Work, 45(2), pp.667–684 (paywalled)

McLaughlan, H and Teater, B (2017) Evidence-informed practice for social work. Maidenhead: Open University Press/McGraw Hill

Pawson, R et al. (2003) Types and quality of knowledge in social care, Knowledge Review 3. Social Care Institute for Excellence (open access)

Teater, B and Chonody, JM (2017) Identifying as an evidence-based social worker: the influence of attitudes, access, confidence, and education, Social Work Education, 5479(January), pp.1–16 (paywalled)

Thyer, BA and Myers, LL (2011) The quest for evidence-based practice: a view from the United States, Journal of Social Work, 11(1), pp.8–25 (paywalled)

Webber, M (2015) Applying research evidence in social work practice. London: Palgrave

Wike, TL et al. (2014) Evidence-based practice in social work: challenges and opportunities for clinicians and organizations, Clinical Social Work Journal, 42(2), pp.161–170 (paywalled)

Yates, M et al. (2015) From a provider’s perspective: integrating evidence-based practice into the culture of a social service organization. Child welfare, 94(2), pp.87–106 (open access)

Social services evidence

Social services evidence

When we’re asked to produce an evidence summary or review, we use a wide range of evidence sources to make sure we’re finding research, reports of activities, evaluations and discussions around the topic from a variety of voices and perspectives. Over the past few months we’ve been testing out different sources of useful evidence, considering which websites may be of relevance when we’re doing focused searches, and looking for alternative ways of accessing research that is not publicly available and to which we don’t have access through subscriptions. We thought it would be useful to share these resources, so that people working in the social services across Scotland (and beyond) could try out these evidence sources for themselves. Some search tools and databases are more appealing to use them others, and some have more relevant information than others for particular topics. We’re learning more about them every day, but what we really want to know, is – what do you think about social services evidence sources?

We’d love to know what you think, so we’ve created a Google document of social services evidence sources with a bit of description about what some of them are and how they collect and organise research and other evidence. Comments are open on the document and this blog post, so please feel free to add your thoughts for example about usability of different sources, what challenges you might encounter when you use them, why you would or would not use them. Getting an insight into the challenges and perceptions of people working in social services and wanting to use evidence will help us tailor our workshops and one to one support, as well as to help us, if necessary, to challenge information providers to make their systems more open and accessible. And of course, if you think there are sources that should be included, please make suggestions.

If taking a look at these evidence sources gets you wanting to know more, please feel free to get in touch with us at Iriss ESSS to talk about one to one support or organising a workshop. You’re welcome to come to us in Glasgow, or we can come to you.

Evidence Search and Summary Service launch

Evidence Search and Summary Service launch

Last week saw the launch of the new Iriss Evidence Search and Summary Service (ESSS). We’re really excited to make this free service available to the social services sector in Scotland, to help support practice, service improvement and continuous learning. This post gives a bit of  background as to who we are, where we come from and what we’d like to achieve with the service.

We’re looking forward to getting out into the social services sector to meet people we can help with our service. We’re particularly keen to find out what your information needs are and how we can develop a service that provides the evidence and information you need. Key to our approach will be co-produce evidence searches and summaries that help you make informed decisions about your work.

The service is funded by the Scottish Government and sits within Iriss, a charitable company that promotes positive outcomes for people who use Scotland’s social services. A lot of their work is centred on ensuring that everyone in social services has the knowledge, tools and skills to effectively use evidence and to innovate. The new ESSS service will organically contribute to the aims of Iriss. It will communicate evidence and inspiration to the sector, create conditions for information sharing, help people to make use of evidence to improve services and support, and enable culture change through filling knowledge gaps and supporting the development of skills around evidence, innovation and digital literacy.

Contributing to Scotland’s national Knowledge into Action Strategy, we aim to bridge the knowledge-practice gap, by supporting practitioners, planners and policy-makers to identify and apply evidence, ensuring that decisions about frontline practice, service design, development and delivery are based on sound evidence. Scotland’s strategies for social services highlight the importance of embedding the use of knowledge and evidence in social services practice. It is important for social services to:

  • Work on continuous improvement and innovation
  • Apply new knowledge to policy, planning and practice
  • Use robust evidence and effective application of knowledge in all its forms
  • Achieve better outcomes for people who use social services, and the wider community.

This work isn’t easy, and we know that social services need support and guidance to handle the amount of information available, its broad distribution and wide range of formats, and the complexity of new policy development. ESSS exists to help social services providers to use a range of useful and up to date evidence and knowledge, and build their confidence that they work they undertake is evidence-based.

What we’ll be doing through the ESSS is similar to the work being undertaken by the Knowledge Managers and Health Librarians in places such as NHS Education Scotland’s Knowledge Network, who provide knowledge support for the delivery of health and social care. We’ll be working in partnership with them to develop a service that meets the needs of the workforce and facilitates the use of evidence in practice, service improvement and continuous learning.

The social services sector needs a tailored approach to best respond to the unique nature of the sector and the nature and cultures of the evidence and knowledge relevant to it – something we’ll be writing more about in future posts. We’ll also be writing here about the kinds of evidence we search, how we go about ensuring that we find and evaluate evidence appropriately, and how we aim to communicate this effectively. We’d like to get a dialogue going about this work, share experiences in a social services context internationally and across the library and information world.

The new Evidence Search and Summary Service aims to increase the application of evidence, through providing expert support to source and bring together evidence from research, practice and experience. It’s vital for us to make different kinds of research evidence more accessible and easier to understand for all kinds of people working in social services across Scotland. We’ll be working with each person we support to make sure our products meet their needs.

We’re also working to supporting people in social services to increase their confidence, skills and capacities around finding, evaluating and using evidence. In turn, we believe this will lead to improvements in the quality, efficacy, cost effectiveness and outputs of service and practice developments.

If you’d like to find out more about ESSS and the products and services we offer, you can visit our website. You make an enquiry about your information and evidence needs through the website. Alternatively, you can email us at esss@iriss.org.uk or phone us on 0141 559 5057. We’re also on twitter at @irissESSS.

If you’ve got any thoughts about the new service and its potential, please do feel free to start a discussion in the comments below!